For the last two decades, there have been many changes in the world, and especially in the Asia Pacific region, most of which are positive. Most of the countries in this area have made changes in their economy and have become engines for the development of the global economy. The Asia-Pacific region has emerged as a leader in many areas rather than one area, and as a result, millions of people have come out of their scope of poverty. But, this progress has not been received yet. In fact, the challenges with development also remain the same. In the last 20 years, 5 million 80 thousand people died due to the disaster in the Asia Pacific region. Among the top 10 countries in the Asia Pacific region, the top ten countries are included in the deaths due to the disaster. Significantly, India is not untouched by these disasters.
Through this article, we will discuss the factors responsible for the disaster and the efforts made by the Indian government towards disaster management, especially regarding the National Disaster Management Plan and the ten-point agenda based on the Sendai Framework.
Impact of disaster in India
- Urbanization is taking place in Asia-Pacific region with rapid expansion. For decades people are migrating to cities than villages in this area.
- Due to the centralization of the maximum population in disaster potential areas, the urbanization due to property and economic activity in a small area, there is a possibility of major challenges facing the Disaster Risk Reduction Management.
- India has traditionally been sensitive to natural disasters due to the geo climatic conditions. Here the incidents of flood, drought, cyclone, earthquake and landslide are common.
- There is a danger of different intensity earthquakes in almost 60% of the land area of India.
- More than 40 million hectares area floods frequently. Total 7,516 km 5700 km from the long coastline The danger of cyclone remains. About 68% of the cultivated area here is sensitive to drought.
- Apart from this, there is a crisis of Tsunami in Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Eastern and Western Ghats areas.
- There is often a danger of landslides in areas of Himalayan region and Eastern and Western Ghats.
- Recently, the serious flood of India’s Kerala state has attracted the attention of the world community for the commitment to management of disasters again.
- However, India has released National Disaster Management Plan for its commitment to the Sensex Framework in the year 2016 itself.
National Disaster Management Plan
- Prime Minister Narendra Modi released the National Disaster Management Plan on June 1, 2016.
- This is the first such plan prepared in the country.
- Its objective is to make India disaster resistant and reduce the loss of life and property.
- This plan is based on the major four points of ‘Sedai Framework’.
What is the Sendai Framework?
- The Sendai Framework is a progressive framework and the purpose of this important framework is to reduce the number of disadvantages and significant numbers of affected people due to disasters by 2030.
- It is a voluntary and non-compulsory agreement for 15 years, under which the role of the state is considered to be primary to reduce the risk of disaster, but this responsibility should be shared with local government and private sector including other stakeholders.
Seven global goals
- Reducing the average global mortality rate to 100,000 per year in 2020-2030, compared to the period 2005-2015 by 2030.
- In the 2020-2030s, the target of reducing the average number of people affected by disaster-affected people per 100,000 by the year 2005-2015 is the goal of reducing to 100,000 .
- Reduce the economic losses caused by direct disaster in relation to global GDP by the year 2030.
- Reduce the disaster damage caused by the year 2030 as well as health and educational facilities and significant infrastructure and disruption of basic services.
- Enhance the number of countries that adopt a national and local disaster risk reduction strategy by the year 2020.
- To encourage international cooperation between developing countries through adequate and continuous support to fulfill their national functions for the implementation of this framework by the year 2030.
- Ensuring access to people by making the multi-hazard earli warning system, disaster risk information and adequate increase in availability of assessments by the year 2030.
Four main functions
- Study of disaster risk.
- Improving Disaster Risk Management
- Investing to reduce disaster risk through structural and non-structural measures.
- Better preparations for facing disaster, prior information and better reconstruction after disaster.
- It is worth mentioning that the Sendai Framework has been brought after the Hugo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015.
- With the flexibility of dealing with nations and communities to reduce the Hugo Framework for Action disasters, the first plan is to explain, describe and expand all the necessary tasks to different people in the areas.
- UNISDR serves as a follow-up and review implementation of Sendai Framework.
|The United Nations International Disaster Reduction Strategy
(United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction -UNISDR)
Special element of the plan
- The scope of this plan covers all steps of disaster management – prevention, reducing risk, response and restoration.
- Under this scheme, there has been a provision for every kind of integration between all departments and agencies of the government.
- It includes arrangements for coordinating at all levels between government departments and agencies.
- In the scheme, the Panchayat and Urban Local Bodies have been mentioned about the role and responsibility of each government level.
- This plan has been made keeping in mind the regional base, which is not only for disaster management but also for the development plan.
- Its design is designed in such a way that it can be implemented equally in all stages of disaster management.
- Major activities such as prior information, transmission of information, medical services, fuel, traffic, search, rescue etc. have also been included in this to facilitate dissemination of facilities to the agencies in disaster management.
- Under this scheme, a general framework has also been made for the restoration.
- Measures for assessing the conditions and better reconstruction measures have also been mentioned.
- In order to enable the community to cope with the disaster, this plan has given more emphasis on information, education and communication activities.
A 10-point agenda framework has been prepared for the government to renew efforts to reduce disaster risk, which is as follows:
- First- In all areas of development, we have to assimilate the principles of disaster reduction management. It will have to ensure proper standards during the construction of all sectors of development works such as airports, roads, canals, hospitals, schools and bridges.
- It can be acquired with community flexibility. Thus, the world’s largest infrastructure in the next two decades will be in our area.
- We need to ensure that the high standards of disaster protection are followed in their construction. That would be smart strategy, which would be long term.
- We have to think about the account of our public expenditure. There will be such opportunities in India due to “Home for All” and “Smart City” initiatives.
- In this area, India will build an alliance or center to promote the infrastructure of its ability to overcome disaster with its other partner countries and stakeholders.
- This will create knowledge for disaster risk assessment, reducing risk in integrated financing of infrastructure in the development of technologies and mechanisms with the ability to recover from disaster.
- Secondly- we need to work towards risk elimination . There is a need to work from multinational companies to states, from poor homes to small and medium industries.
- Most countries in this area have limited management of insurance only from middle to high middle classes. We need to think in a big and innovative way.
- The role of governments is not only its regulation, but also should be encouraging the disaster victims for programs which many people need.
- In India, the Government has taken major steps to ensure financial inclusion and risk insurance for the sake of the poor.
- Jana Dhan Yojana has added billions of people to the banking system. The Security Insurance Scheme has provided the risk insurance to the crores of people who have a dire need of it.
- The Government has also started a crop insurance scheme, in which millions of farmers can get relief from the disaster. These are the basic measures to be done at home level.
- Third, greater participation in disaster risk management and leadership of women has been encouraged. Most women are affected by disasters.
- Women affected by disaster need special assistance. Therefore, in order to deal with this crisis, women need to be trained as volunteers on a large scale.
- For reconstruction we need to prepare women engineers, masons, construction workers and women self-help groups so that affected women can be provided special assistance.
- Fourth- There is a need to invest in risk mapping globally. Need to prepare mapping related to disasters.
- For instance, we need to accept broad standards and norms for earthquake. On this basis, a Schematic of Sismic Zone has been prepared in India.
- There are five high-risk and two low-risk seismic zones. In this way, we need to develop world-class risk categories for disaster risks related to chemical threats, forest fires, cyclones, different types of floods and other hazards.
- This will help us to make a common understanding of nature and the severity of disaster risk in different parts of the world.
- Fifth- We have to take advantage of technology to increase the efficiency of disaster risk management efforts.
- Through an e-platform, organizations and individuals will be brought to a stage so that the proper exchange of efficiency, technology and resources will increase the capacity of disaster risk management and it will have greater impact on our efforts.
- Sixth- On the issue of disaster, a network of universities must be prepared. After all, universities also have social responsibilities.
- After five years of the Seminar Framework, we should create a network of Universities globally, so that they work together for disaster risk management.
- In addition to this network, various universities will be able to carry out the work of expertise in both areas on disaster issues, which will be more relevant. The universities located on the coastal areas can gain expertise in management of risk from coastal hazards, and in the same way, people located in hilly cities can be focused on mountain hazards.
- Seventh- Occasion of social media and mobile technology opportunities should also be used in this direction.
- The social media is changing the disaster response. It is helping the agencies in rapidly and easily establishes contact with citizens, related authorities.
- After disaster and disaster, the affected people are using social media to help each other. We need to use the possibilities of social media and there is a need to develop applications that can prove to be helpful in disaster risk management.
- Eighth- Build local capacity and initiative. The task of disaster risk management, especially in fast-growing economies, can be helpful in creating conditions for the state’s formal institutions to be the best.
- A specific action plan is being prepared and it is being implemented locally. In the last two decades, community based efforts have been restricted to the contingency plan of disaster preparedness for a short term.
- We need to expand the claims of community based efforts and continuous life. We have to make the best of traditional practices and indigenous knowledge to ensure localization for disaster risk reduction.
- Aggrieved agencies will have to communicate with their local community and they must make them capable of dealing with the disaster. For example, if a fire extinguisher visits a school in your area every week, then the school children will be sensitive to it all year round.
- Ninth – Ensure that the acquired knowledge about disaster management will not be useless. The knowledge gained from the papers and reports prepared after every catastrophe is difficult to use.
- Such mistakes are often repeated. We need to make the system more and more useful for learning.
- The United Nations has started international competition to create documentary film so that the conditions, relief and rescue operations of the time of disaster can be recorded.
- After recovering from the disaster, preparing the physical structure is not just a ‘construction work’ but it also has the opportunity to improve institutional system to deal with the disasters. All these systems need to be built so that the disaster can be quickly assessed.
- After the disaster, India will work with its partner countries and multilateral development agencies to facilitate the technical assistance for the reconstruction of homes.
- Tenth – To deal with disasters, the maximum harmony is to be brought to international level. After a disaster, all the world has to take its responsibility. If we accept working under a common umbrella then it can move forward our collective strength and solidarity.
Source: PIB , Official website (Narendra Modi app) and The Hindu