We live in the age of artificial intelligence (AI), which has given us access to advanced technology, storage capacity and information. In the first cycle of technology development, spinning machines , electricity in the second and the computer revolution in the industrial revolution under the third cycle. In 2016 , the World Economic Forum has called AI ‘Fourth Industrial Revolution’ or ‘Industry’ 4.0. Industry 4.0 or fourth industrial revolution has emerged as a powerful force across the globe. Under this, more digitization and products , value chain ,It is envisaged to add more business models to each other. It has given us regulatory challenges like data ownership and labor conservation, and in particular it affects jobs and wages levels based on automation.
Fourth Industrial Revolution or Industry 4.0
- The first industrial revolution was due to the power of water and steam, which transformed human labor into mechanical manufacturing.
- The second industrial revolution was due to electric power, due to which production was possible at a large level. The Third Industrial Revolution paved the way for automatic creation by using electronic and information technology.
- The fourth industrial revolution is currently in progress and in this, statistics are being exchanged in automation and manufacturing technologies.
- Using the traditional and modern technology in the construction under Industry 4.0, the real and virtual world will be tie-ups.
Industry 4.0 and Labor
- A study of the Oxford Martin Program 2013 on technology and employment suggests that from the year 2000 , only 0.5 percent of new jobs were created which were not previously present.
- It is against 173 million jobs which will be automated in G- 7 countries in the next eight years , it is notable that G-7 countries are the world’s seven largest economies.
- According to the World Bank Report by the World Bank (2016 ) as a result of automation, labor revenues have been expected to redistribute labor in countries such as Asia – Labor Lending – Latin America and Africa.
- It is believed that ‘medium-skilled’ jobs that require regular cognitive and manual applications will be automated in the next few years.
- 65 percent of India’s global IT sector and 40 percent of global business technology will turn into automated jobs by 69 percent of formal employment by 2030 .
Effect of automation
- According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), 60 percent of formal employment in India depends on ‘medium skill’ jobs, including work relating to sales , service , skilled agriculture and trade , all of which are within the scope of automation. .
- Thus automation will have a profound effect on labor on the micro level of the economy.
- There will be three main changes at the micro level which will bring automation, changes in skill demand , gender inequality and firm restructuring in redistribution of workforce.
- First of all, ‘the definition of skill shows the compatibility of workers to work with or with increasing speed of automation. For example, the demand for ‘system skills’ would be more demanding in contrast to the ability to solve complex problems and the physical or material skills of the social skills associated with human perception.
- As a result, relative returns on time and effort for different jobs will be significantly different. This means that it will be better for some types of jobs but completely eliminate other types of work.
- For example, the contribution of female employees mainly in call center, retail and administration jobs will be reduced and due to the creation of digital infrastructure, the demand for male workers will increase , which will also change the gender aspect.
- Ultimately, the automation and redistribution of workers will have to reorganize the firms on ‘Human Cloud Platform’, where the workers can be rented from any place to work.
- This will cause a difference between firm and workforce strategies in the short run.
- At that level, automation will change the meaning of the work. Actually, jobs will be described as a set of ‘tasks’. Independent workers will build a portfolio of tasks for specific wages rates.
- The hierarchy of supervision at the workplace will be distributed and replaced by remote teams’ support network. This will significantly change the workforce’s inspiration and communication.
- The above changes have little impact on the type of new employment contract, minimum wage , social benefits and collective bargaining with the casual employer’s obligations.
- This is a major challenge, how India will control flexible jobs, momentary wages and distributed risks with the ‘on-demand’ economy .
- For this, in the coming years, there is a need to pay attention in three key areas of labor policy in which to re-employ the workers and reconsider social policy in the short term, as well as re-employability of new employment opportunities in new areas of the economy for a long time. Checking involves.
- First of all, reproduction of existing workers working on the basis of automation , rearranging the workers in new jobs and restoring the potential labor of students in the university.
- Apart from this, the concept of ‘smart’ work and demand for specific skills will encourage universities to get higher education and training and redesign the state for facilitating the transition to the job market.
- Second, there is an urgent need to reconsider the plans for working population , retirement and personal life.
- It is worth noting that in the social policy, the state of the state of livelihood insurance and universal basic income, such as the future income taxes and the ability to distribute it, the state is established.
- The World Social Protection Report of ILO 2017-19 shows that the share of workers covered by at least one social security program in India is only 19 percent compared to 63 percent in China .
- In addition, the international norms of labor, including the ‘Right to work’ and ‘decent work’ set by the ILO , should be revised and expanded in the new economy where workers work through the ‘Human Cloud Platform’.
- Significantly, a civilized work is defined as productive work under the terms of freedom (current safe authority), equity (adequate remuneration) and dignity (social policy coverage).
- Third, there is an urgent need to explore new areas of manufacturing and industries , which have the potential to generate paid work in the current era based on automation.
- It is important that the Commerce and Industry Minister had pointed to this while presenting the new national industrial policy in 2018 .
- Additionally , according to the report of the ILO of 2018 , ‘ Care Work and Care Jobs for the Future of Des Work ‘ , care work has been considered as an important area of the economy, which has the potential to create huge employment.
- Every day, the unpaid care work employs two equal workforce of two billion people, and in the report of the ILO, it has been argued that with the increased investment in education , health and social enterprises, by 2030 , 269 million Jobs will be created.
- This will benefit women especially, who currently contribute more than two-thirds of unpaid care to the global level.
- AI inspires us to think of technology as well as social relations in a new light. Apart from all this, it encourages specific responses in the context of challenge as well as developing and sharing understanding towards future problems.
- But Indian policy makers have continental, technical and ethical challenges related to AI . Actually, AI removes us from traditional , linear and non-disruptive thinking, which we are used to.
- The result of AI will come out in the form of a smart factory which will be able to use many skills, better utilization of resources , efficiently designed and direct contact between business partners. However, India is dependent on the service sector at large scale for its development, but the construction sector will also have to play a role in India’s rapid development.
- At present, state-of-the-art technology is used in construction work and requires higher level of skill. Therefore, even though AI may be an all-round development of the economy but before this development, it will have to do some protective measures by proposing its results so that the ben