Last month, US President Donald Trump had announced that the US was leaving the Intermediate Range Atomic Force (INF) treaty. It is worth noting that the US signed this bilateral agreement with Russia in 1987 . Indeed, this decision of the American President was not unexpected because America has long been accusing Russia and other countries of harmonizing the rules of this treaty to harm America.
Intermediate Range Atomic Force (INF) Treaty
- The INF Treaty is considered to be one of the most important weapon control agreements between the US and Russia. In 1987 , the US and Russia signed this bilateral agreement.
- Under the INF Treaty, the US And USSR Agreed to finish all ground-launch-missiles in the 500-5,500 km range within three years and in the future it was decided not to develop, produce or deploy them.
- In Europe in the 1980s, Russia had compromised on the American response with the SS- 20 ballistic missiles deployment and the Parsing- 2 rocket, due to heavy public opposition to Europe.
- U.S. 846 Parsing- 2 and ground launch cruise missile (GLCM) and USSR Has 1,846 missiles (SS- 4 AS , SS-5s and SS-20 to S) was destroyed under this agreement
- This treaty allowed air-launch and sea-based missile systems to only one extent.
- The INF Treaty was widely welcomed in Europe, widely because these missiles were deployed in Europe, and on December 8 , 1987 , US President Ronald Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev signed a treaty in Washington.
- Reagan had earlier announced that ” a nuclear war can never be won and should never be fought ” which indicates the need to reduce the stress of the Cold War.
- It is notable that until the early 1980s , the USSR Had deposited about 40,000 nuclear weapons , more than the US armory .
Impact of treaty
- In Europe, Russia Single Vorhed SS-4 S and SS- 5 S more accurate 3 – warhead SS- 20 converted into missiles which increased the anxiety.
- U.S. In order to reassure its nuclear allies of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), they started deploying Pershing-2 and GLCM in Belgium, Italy and West Germany , which started a new arms race.
- After this, Europe realized that any kind of nuclear conflict on European land would cause more European casualties.
- As a result , in the 1980s, the U.S. And USSR Introduced three sets of parallel talks, including the Strategic Weapon Cuts Treaty (START), Intermediate Range Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty and Reagan’s new launch ‘ Space War ‘ program (Strategic Defense Initiative).
- It is noteworthy that the INF talks basically impose sanctions on both sides equally. The INF Treaty helped to overcome the fear of the nuclear war, which was cruising on Europe.
- It also made some confidence between Washington and Moscow and contributed to the end of the Cold War.
- But there were some weaknesses in the treaty, as it liberated other nuclear weapon powers to develop ground-based intermediate range forces.
- Since then , many countries including India, Pakistan and North Korea have developed missiles with range ranging from 500 to 5,500 km.
- But China has expanded its missile arsenal dramatically in the past three decades.
- According to US officials, approximately 90% of China’s large missile armory has an estimated 2,000 rockets, which is of intermediate range and if China wants to be part of the INF, it will also be illegal according to the treaty.
- US has expressed doubt that Russia Novetr 9 M 729 violated the treaty by testing missiles and In addition, 2014 US President Barack Obama had planted formally charged with violating the INF treaty, Russia .
- On the other hand, Russia alleged that the US Has deployed potential launchers for missile defense interceptors in Poland and Romania, which is a violation of this treaty . In addition, Russia has unveiled a new nuclear torpedo and nuclear-powered cruise missile plan.
- At the same time, China already has a range of 500-5,500 km range missiles , but its modernization plans , which have been authorized by the DF- 26 , which further enhance America’s concern today.
- China has been recognized as a strategic rival to regional sovereignty in the Indo-Pacific region, ” global pre-dominance of America’s displacement of the future ‘ will work.
- Therefore, this type of weapons makes the border line blurred between conventional arms and nuclear weapons.
- Increased dependence on space-based and cyber systems, such as the uncompromising approach , increases the risk of accidental and unknown nuclear growth.
Protection of atomic countries
- The INF Treaty reflects the political reality of the Cold War, where there were two nuclear superpowers, but the present world is the center of multi-polar powers that do not conform to the atomic world.
- There are currently many nuclear equations in the world, such as the U.S.-Russia, the US-China , the US-North Korea , India-Pakistan , India-China , but in the case of proving themselves Not there.
- So the big challenge is that if these new realities are kept in mind, then existing nuclear weapon control devices can only be preserved.
- INF treaty is not the first treaty to solve the problem of control over nuclear weapons earlier Disnbr 200l in , USSR With the United Nations unilateral withdrawal of the 1972 anti-ballistic missile (ABM) treaty.
- At the same time, the sequel of this event is also likely to be canceled by the new start agreement, which limits the two countries to 700 Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM) , submarine-launch ballistic missile (SLBM) and heavy bomber and 1,550 warhead.
- Political dispute is also evident in the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which is the most successful example of multilateral weapon control.
- Actually, it can neither accommodate four countries outside (India, Israel , North Korea and Pakistan) (because all four nuclear weapons are rich countries) nor can it register any progress on nuclear disarmament.
- We have to understand that now the world is the center of multi-polar powers, which is not in accordance with the atomic world, that is, a mistake can cause the destruction of the entire world.
- At the same time, the problem of India is related to reducing the nature of its missile program with weapon control diplomacy.
- As the American struggle with Russia has increased, so there will be pressure on advanced military systems on India’s growing partnership with Russia.
- After this, India has to focus on its need to immediately increase domestic efforts.
- At the same time, India has to diversify its international cooperation with hyperSonic weapons and take a long time to think about the missile program.