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Science and technology In Depth / Special: Chandrayaan

Context and background
India’s space journey started with Thumba, has gone a long way. In this episode, India successfully launched Chandrayaan-1 under the first Chandra Mission on October 22, 2008. On October 22, 2018, ten years before the Chandra Mission has been completed. Knowing the mysteries of the Moon, the only natural satellite in the Earth, helped not only India but also the knowledge of the scientists of the world. In just eight months of launch, Chandrayaan-1 has achieved all the goals and objectives of the mission. Even today, the study of data collected by this mission is being done by the scientists of the world. This mission has increased the credibility of India around the world. Along with this, the morale of Indian scientists also increased. The result of this is that the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is now engaged in the preparation of the launch of ISRO Chandrayaan-2.
Chandrayaan Mission-1
  • 10 years ago, India achieved such an achievement in the field of space science which was with few selected countries.
  • 10 years ago, in the country’s first lunar mission, a spacecraft was successfully admitted to the orbit of Moon, which proved to be a milestone for India’s space mission.
  • Government of India approved the ISRO proposal Chandrayaan-1 for the first time in the year 2003 for the Indian Mission of Moon.
  • Around 5 years after that, the successful launch of Chandrayaan-1 on October 22, 2008.
  • Chandrayaan-1 was launched from Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, i.e. PSLV-C11 Rocket, from Satish Dhawan Space Center Shri Harikota.
  • Chandrayaan-1 reached the moon on October 27, 2008 after five days. At first he stayed about 1000 kilometers away from the moon and circled it in a circular orbit.
  • After that he went closer to the Moon and from 12 November 2008, just 100 kilometers away, every two hours began to revolutionize the moon.
  • In this spacecraft, 11 scientific instruments made in India, America, UK, Germany, Sweden and Bulgaria were also installed. This spacecraft weighed 1380 kilograms.
  • Chandrayaan-1 was India’s first spacecraft mission beyond the orbit of Earth. Its purpose was to expand its knowledge of the Earth’s only natural satellite.
Purpose of Chandrayaan-1
The primary purpose of Chandrayaan-1 was-
  1. Installing unmanned spacecraft in orbit around the Moon
  2.  

  3. Mapping the Moon’s surface minerals and chemicals.
  4.  

  5. Enhance the technical base in the country.
What is achieved from the Chandrayaan-1 mission?
  • Through the Chandrayaan-1, to locate the mineral and chemical elements along with the search of water and ice on the moon’s surface and to create a 3-D picture on either side of the Moon.
  • On successful completion of all major objectives, on 19th May 2009, the Chandrayaan-1 class was increased from 100 to 200 km.
  • A horizontal cave structure was found on the surface of the moon called lava cube. It was found in length of about 1.7 km and width of 120 meters.
  • This mission was sent for 2 years, but on 29 August 2009 it suddenly lost the radio contact. A few days later, ISRO officially announced the end of this mission.
  • By that time the space shuttle had completed the orbiting more than 3400 of the Moon. He stayed in the Moon’s orbit for 312 days and continued to send data extensively from refined sensors. By this time the YAN had completed most scientific purposes.
  • In addition to sending more than 70 thousand photos of the Moon’s surface, the Yan captured the mountains and crater’s breathtaking scenes in the camera permanently in shady areas of the polar region of the Moon.
  • This space shuttle provided valuable data related to chemical and mineral content found on the Moon.
  • The quality of data received from the vehicle was quite good. All the primary goals and objectives of Chandrayaan-1 were successfully achieved during the 8 months of launch.
  • By using data of Chandrayaan-1, the information collected on the moon was collected.
Confirmed snow on the moon
  • In August 2018, American Space Agency NASA has confirmed that using data collected from mission Chandrayaan-1 (space shuttle) launched by India 10 years ago, scientists used snow in the most dark and cold parts of the polar regions of the Moon. Being detected is about to be done.
  • This study by scientists was published in a journal called PNAS.
  • A study published in the journal PNAS said that the snow found on the moon was scattered around here. This ice is found at such a place, where the sun’s light never reaches due to very low tilt of the rotating axis of the Moon.
  • The maximum temperature here was never more than 156 degree Celsius. Even before this, many assessments had indirectly indicated the presence of snow on the Moon’s southern pole.
  • Most of the snow pole is frozen near the lunar craters. The snow of the North Pole is more widely spread but more scattered.
Moon Minareloji Mapper ( Moon Mineralogy Mapper-M has been studied 3)
  • An M3 device was sent with Chandrayaan-1 (spacecraft) launched in 2008 by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).
  • Scientists studied the data obtained from NASA’s Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) and reached the conclusion that the water on the surface of the moon is present in the form of ice.
  • The M3 device is not only able to collect data that reflects the reflective properties of ice, but it is capable of measuring its molecules as well as the specific way of absorbing infrared light, so it can be used for water or vapor and solid ice Could differentiate between
      Moon Impact Craft
  • On November 14, 2008, Chandrayaan-1 threw a heavy test tool named Moon Impact Craft on the North Pole of Moon.
  • Equipped with a mass spectrometer, video camera and an elevated measurement radar, this device draws many images of the surface of the Moon while falling down.
  • An analysis of the components of the extremely rare atmosphere of the Moon, and many other statistics also circulated above to Chandrayaan-1.
  • On the basis of information sent by Chandrayaan-1 about the geographical structure of the Moon, the first important conclusion was made in 2009 that the pole of the Moon possessed a large quantity of water in the form of ice.
Purpose of Chandrayaan-2
  1. During the mission, studying the elements present in the surface of the Moon, find out that its rock and clay are made of which elements.
  2.  

  3. Study the structure of trenches and peaks present there.
  4.  

  5. Study of the density of the moon’s surface and the change in it.
  6.  

  7. The thermal properties near the poles, the study of the quantity of electrons in the moon’s ionsosphere.
  8.  

  9. Watering on the surface of the moon, taking three-dimensional pictures of the surface of the moon, besides finding the marks of hydroxyl.
ISRO mobilized in the preparation of Chandrayaan-2
  • Since the success of ISRO Chandrayaan-1, it has started preparing for its challenging space mission, Chandrayaan-2.
  • Under Chandrayaan-2, ISRO will send the orbiter, rover and loon lander for the first time in the moon. This campaign will also encourage new experiments with the use and testing of new technologies.
  • Chandrayaan-2 mission can be launched on January 3, 2019. However, if technical requirements are not completed then it can be extended further.
  • After 40 days of launch, it will land on the moon. Under this mission, ISRO will try to bring its vehicle to the south pole for the first time.
  • Earlier Chandrayaan was to be sent in space this year, but due to some changes in its design it is delayed.
  • The new design has increased about 600 kilograms. Actually, during the experiments, it was discovered that the satellite will start moving when the part that descends on the moon leaves the moon. For this, there was a need to improve design and increase weight.
  • The first total projection weight was 3250 kg, now it will be 3850 kilograms.
  • The vehicle’s orbiter weighs 2379 kg, 1471 kg of lander. And 27 kg of rover Will happen.
  • For different experiments, 8 will be in orbiter, 4 in lander and 2 payloads in rover.
  • Indian Space Research Organization ISRO has prepared important payloads ‘A band radar ultimeter’ for the second moon mission Chandrayaan-2.
  • This pay-load will take place in Chandrayaan-2 lander. The integration of this payload will be done in the lander and after that the testing procedures will start.
  • KA Band radar ultimeter and HDA processor is a main payload of Chandrayaan-2 Lander, which has been developed by the Space Application of Ahmedabad entirely from indigenous technology. Its role in the mission will be crucial.
  • Chandrayaan-2 Lander is named after Vikram Sarabhai, the founder of ISRO.
Chandrayaan-1
  • India’s first moon mission Chandrayaan-1 was successfully released from PSLV C-11 on October 22, 2008.
  • This spacecraft revolves around the moon for chemical, mineral and light-geometry mapping.
  • Its purpose is to find a detailed map of the surface of the moon and the presence of water and helium, as well as the distribution of minerals and chemical elements such as magnesium, aluminum, silicon, calcium, iron and titanium on the surface of the moon and high atomic numbers like uranium and thorium It was to discover the elements that existed.
Chandrayaan-2
  • It is the second of India to be sent to the Moon and an upgraded version of Chandrayaan-1, which is planned to be sent in April 2018.
  • This will be first taken to the moon by an orbiter, a lander and a rover.
  • While the orbiter will revolve around the moon, the lander will be deploying the rover after landing at a specified location in the moon.
  • The aim of this vehicle is to study the fundamental studies of the surface of the Moon (Elemental Study) along with the study of mineralogical studies.
  • It has been planned to be sent by GSLV-MK-II as a joint stack in the Earth Parking Orbit (EPO).
  • It is worth noting that during the year 2010, it was agreed between India and Russia that the Russian Space Agency will construct ‘Roscosmos’ Lunar Lander and ISRO’s construction of orbiter and rover will be built with GSLV . The launch of this vehicle will be done by
  • But, later it was decided that Lunar Lander Development will also be done by ISRO. Thus Chandrayaan-2 is now an Indian mission.
  • The total cost of this mission is approximately 800 crores. The cost of launch is Rs 200 crores and the cost of satellite is Rs 600 crores. This cost is almost half as compared to launching this mission from foreign soil.
  • Chandrayaan-2 will be equipped with a land rover and provoke and inspecting the surface of the moon will send statistics to be used to analyze the soil of the Moon.
  Team Vision Input
  • How Chandrayaan-2 will be different from Chandrayaan-1?
  • Chandrayaan-2 will be bigger and larger than Chandrayaan-1 and will carry a lander along with him on the moon, with a rover that turns on the moon.
  • The important difference between the two is that Chandrayaan-1 did the orbit just above the moon but one part in Chandrayaan-2 will land on the moon. Then, like a remote car, will move around in the moon.
  • Chandrayaan-2, similar to Chandrayaan-1, will revolve around it 100 kilometers away from the moon. The lander will be separated from the main yard after some time and will slowly descend on the surface of the moon and if everything is fine then the rover placed in it will take photographs moving around the lander.
  • Lander will do a soft landing on the moon’s surface, after which the rover will emerge and perform many experiments on the surface of the moon.
  • In addition, he will examine the Moon’s ground texture and examine it with the help of different tools.
  • Chandrayaan-2 will be launched from GSLV Mark-3 instead of GSLV Mark II. In this direction, ISRO has crossed another important point.
  • Successful testing of cryogenic engine used in the heavy rocket i.e. launch of Chandrayaan-2 will be done by GSLV Mark-3.
  • During the trial all the systems of the cryogenic engine worked normally.
Preparing to send human mission again on moon
  • On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong made history by stepping on the moon. This was the man’s first meeting with the moon coming to lunarly in the house of moonlight. After this, the US sent five more campaigns to the moon.
  • However, human missions have been sent to the moon. Between 1969 and 1972, 12 astronauts landed on the moon surface.
  • Many unmanned aircraft and roborvers i.e. Robotic vehicles are also sent for use on the surface of the moon and to understand the atmosphere there. These include the India’s Chandrayaan Mission.
  • Humans have experimented with the presence of water, the presence of water on the moon surface. Apart from the US, Europe and Russia, India is involved in doing these experiments.
  • Nearly half a century later, America has again announced that it will send human missions to the moon to know the untimely aspects of the moon.
  • For this historic mission, the world’s two major space agencies – National Aeronautics and Space Mission – NASA and the European Space Agency – that means ESA will cooperate.
  • According to NASA, this mission will be tested in 2018 and in 2021 the person will be sent to the moon.
  • Companies like European Space Agency and Airbus will also support NASA for this mission.
  • Under this campaign, the first of the Orion Yan will be tested in 2018. Through this, humans will be sent to the moon.
  • At the beginning of the test this vehicle will be transported to the moon first. During this time no human will be inside it. After this, Orion will carry four astronauts on the moon in 2021.
  • The European Space Agency is preparing the supply module for this vehicle. In fact, after the retirement of the Apollo Yan, there is no such other vehicle in the world that can take people to the moon or Mars.
Conclusion
The moon has always been the subject of a curiosity for mankind. Scientists and the entire human race are always curious about the moon. The planet’s closest and coldest planet has been considered quite suitable for life outside the Earth. This is the reason that many space agencies from many countries have been sending their sails from time to time. India too is not behind this task. India has constantly achieved new achievements in space. After the first Chandramission Chandrayaan-1, ISRO is in the process of preparing for the second Chandramision Chandrayaan-2. Having crossed all the challenges, India has made a strong leap in the world of space and has become a strong identity at the global level.
Updated: January 3, 2019 — 5:58 am

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